PROBLEMS OF HYBRID SEED CULTIVATION IN NEPAL
Hybrid seed are produced from the crossing of two different variety of cross. Hybrid Seed production is one of the main contributors to the dramatic rise in agricultural product during the last half of the 20th century.
All of the hybrid seed produce the product based on their character but produce are not referred as to use as seed for next cultivation. So , it is necessary to buy the hybrid seed per year .Controlled hybrids provide very uniform characteristics because they are produced by crossing two inbred strains. Elite inbred strains are used that express well-documented and consistent phenotypes (such as high crop yield) that are relatively good for inbred plants. Hybrids are chosen to improve the characteristics of the resulting plants, such as better yield, greater uniformity, improved colour, disease resistance . The parent strains used are therefore carefully chosen so as to achieve the uniformity that comes from the uniformity of the parents, and the superior performance that comes from heterosis.
High cost of hybrid seed, a wide space in anthesis silking interval, difficulties in early generation lines untimely availability of inputs (irrigation, fertilizer, pesticides etc.), requirement for seed replacement in every season and high irrigation are the major problems associated with hybrid maize . They are briefly described as follows :
High Cost of Seed
Most of the farmers of Nepal are under the line of poverty . They don’t have enough money to take a new type of hybrid seed of high price . Due to the subsistence type of farming and the lack of secondary economical source , they don’t afford for paying more in hybrid seed .
2. Untimely Available of Inputs
Hybrid seeds require more input application than common and local seeds and on time. In the context of our country , Farmer don’t get the fertilizer in time and in enough amount . On the other hand ,maximum farming system is rain-fed farming system. Only when rainfall occurs , sufficient moisture is maintain in the field. So , This being a great problem in hybrid seed in Nepal, reduces the total yield. Reduction in yield decreases the farmers willingness towards hybrid seed.
3. Seed Replacement in Every Season
Hybrid seed must purchases every year.
We can’t use the yield as a seed purpose . If such is done, it don’t give the result of that seed. So , hybrid seed must replace in every season which is not enough affordable to the Nepalese farmers . This problem will be the major problem for the village farmers because there is no access of small agro-vet also, in village. So, they don’t get the seed timely season to season for replacement.
4. Lack of fidelity on seed distribution
Lack of fairness causes people to face different problem in hybrid seed. Some groups sale off-seed in the name of hybrid seed. Due to the absence of strict rule in seed distribution and selling , anyone can sale the seed and they don’t do fairness. This causes, great problem on the field of Nepalese farmer in the name of hybrid seed.
5. Inadequate technical knowledge
Technical knowledge determines the yield of the crop. Fertilizer requirement, Irrigation scheduling , Management of diseases-pest , Crop spacing , etc have a great role in the optimum production of hybrid seed. Lack of knowledge on such points, creates great reduction on the yield of hybrid seed. Nepalese farmer faced technical problem on the production due to lack of complete knowledge . So , this problem is also a major problem for hybrid seed production in the context of our country .
Hybrid seed cultivation is the requirement for fulfilling the need of increasing population. So , Awareness of these seed about their cultivation method, maintainence should be given for all Nepalese farmer . If hybrid seed are cultivated based on their requirement they needed , it supports greatly the self- suffiency nation plan on agricultural production.