Seed Production Technique of Carrot
Climatic Requirement for Carrot Seed Production
Rainfall play a crucial role in Seed Production. Rainfall should be less or no rainfall during flowering and seed maturity. Fairly dry and cool summer at flowering and fruiting/reproductive development are vital for Carrot Seed Production.
Variety needed for Carrot Seed Production;
Nantes Forto = Mustang = 2200 m – 2700 m
New Kuroda = Dolpa/Jumla = 2100 m – 2700 m
Land Requirement for Carrot Seed Production
Land is not suitable where same kind of crop or other varieties of same crop, was grown within previous two years. The field should not contain seed borne disease infection beyond the maximum permissible level and the field should be free from volunteer plant. Soil should be fertile, well drained, sandy loam to clay loan and soil pH 6-6.8.
Method of Seed Production;
a) Insitu Method or Seed to Seed Method;
- Plants are allowed to seed in it’s place of transplanting (original position of first planted)
- Essential requirement of this method if there is high quality foundation seed, by which commercial seeds can be produced by this method
- Field preparation and cultural practices is followed as in market crop (fresh) production ( up to Root production/maturity)
- Spacing of R×R = 75 cm and P×P = 10-30 cm
- Isolation distance: For foundation seed production = 1000 m and For certified seed = 500 m
- Time of transplanting is followed as in the root production but avoid rainfall and humidity, cold/frost atthe time seed maturation and harvesting.
- The recommended manure and fertilizers are applied. All amount of well rotten FYM/Compost, and 1/3rd of N2, full amount/dose of P2O5 and K2O and Borax is applied at the time of transplanting of selected plants. The remaining 1/3rd of N2 is applied at crop growth stage and remaining N2 1/3rd is applied at commencement of flowering /bolting stage.
- There is less chance of selection and rouging of root characters.
b) Transplanting or Root to Seed Method
- When roots are fully mature, crop is uprooted
- After selection of true to type roots, proper root and shoot cut is given. Generally 1/3rd of top cut and 1⁄2 to 3/4th of root cut is given for higher seed yield and better quality seed
- Selection and rouging are done on the basis of foliage characters and root characters
- During transplanting of root, care should be taken so that, the crown remains exposed.
- Small, misshapen, diseased and other undesirable root are discarded as well as Hairy and forked roots are eliminated
- Early and late bolters are removed
- Through examination and selection of true to type plants are absolutely necessary for raising quality of seeds.
Storage of steckling :
- Ideal storage condition for carrot steckling is a temperature of 0C and RH=90-95%
- After elimination of off types, roots are transplanted at a wider Spacing of R×R = 75 c.m and P×P = 10- 30 c.m
- Isolation distant : For foundation seed production = 1000 m and For certified seed = 500 m
- Manure and Fertilizer Application
- The recommended manure and fertilizers are applied. All amount of well rotten FYM/Compost, and 1/3rd of N2, full amount/dose of P2O5 and K2O and Borax is applied at the time of transplanting of selected plants.
- The remaining 1/3rd of N2 is applied at crop growth stage and remaining 1/3 rd is applied at commencement of flowering /bolting stage.
Field Inspection and Rouging :
Before uprooting of the root
Rouging is done during field inspection based on vegetative characters: leaf shape, size, color, crop growth, disease infestation. True to type characters of the variety are ensured during field inspection
Before transplanting of the root:
Rouging is done during field inspection based on radish root characters: root shape, size, color, weight, flesh, disease infestation. True to type characters of the variety are ensured during field inspection
During flowering and fruiting stage :
Rouging is done during field inspection based on flower and fruit characters: flower shape, size, color, number of umbels, umbel order, disease infestation. True to type characters of the variety are ensured during field inspection
Rouging is done during field inspection based on fruit and seed characters: fruit shape, size, color, number of seeds per fruit, disease infestation. True to type characters of the variety are ensured during field inspection.
Flowering and Fruit Setting
- Carrot plant bear compound umbel. It is the king umbel (primary umbel) or umbel of the first order flowers first. Secondary, tertiary and other order umbels flower at interval of 8-12 days from each other. Anthesis in a single umbel completed in 7-9 days. Peripheral umbellets flower first followed by inner umbellets. Umbel of first two order set seeds 100 % umbels whereas Third =82.7% , fourth = 6.29% and other 2.78% onward and Late formed umbel seed set poorly. Carrot flower is protandrous, so require cross pollination. Insects are main pollinating agents, honeybee and housefly.
Seed Harvesting and Storage :
Crop is harvested when secondary umbels are fully ripe and the third order umbels have started to turn Brown. Seed pods are harvested by mechanically and manually. Harvested plants are kept in wider rows in small piles of 3-5 plants for curing. Curing is completed within 5-14 days or more, depending on weather condition. Seed is then threshed, cleaned, and graded. The spines on the seeds are remove by breaking off the spines through some sort of rubbing action . Seeds are store in air tight container in cool an dry place.
Seed Yield :
Average seed yield of Carrot is 600-700 Kg per hectare however it depends of variety, soil types, climate and growing condition.
Field and Seed Standard of Carrot Seed Production
|Details||Foundation Seed||Certified Seed|
|Off type % Maxm.||0.1%||0.2%|
|Diseased % Maxm.|
|Details||Foundation Seed||Certified Seed|
|Pure Seed % Minimum||96%||96%|
|Inert Matter % Maximum||4%||4%|
|Other crop seed (no/kg of seed Maxm.)||5%||5%|
|Weed seed (no/kg of seed Maxm.)||5%||5%|
|Germination % Minm.||65%||65%|
|Moisture % Minm. = Normal||9%||9%|
|Air tight container||6%||6%|