SEED, ITS IMPORTANCE AND PRODUCTION
A seed is a fertilized ovule containing the plant embryo,when sown in the favorable environment it will become the new plant. Thus, it is also regarded as the propagating material.
From the production or agricultural view, Seeds are the basic unit for food. Healthy seed give healthy plant and healthy plant give the good production. Only quality/high yielding seeds can fulfill the demanding amount of food required for present population. Land is limited so from same limited land we have to produce more so it is only possible from the seed giving better yield.
IMPORTANT OF HIGH YIELDING SEED
- It gives genetic and physical purity to the plants.
- Gives desire number of plant population.
- Minimizes the seed rate and high seedling emergence.
- Growth of plant will be fast and vigorously which helps it to compete with the other weeds crops.
- Disease and pest resistance up to certain extent.
- Have a capacity of stand with the adverse climatic condition.
- ensures uniform growth and maturity throughout its life stages.
- Will have a well developed root system for absorption of required nutrients and shoot system for the transport and strength of standing in field.
- Efficient use of added manures and fertilizers for the well perform of crop.
- Post harvest operation can be done easily and yield can be predictable.
- High yield/return per unit of area because of highly genetically potential crop is exploited.
- Value of product will be high and easily marketable.
- Good seeds surely increased the yield of about at least by 10-12%.
Seeds are simply obtained from harvesting of the crop. Farmers store seed of this season for using on next season. Generally new seeds are produced by different research station like NARC, National seed company, different universities (AFU,TU(IAAS),Private seed companies and individual researchers. Research on different crop’s seed like cereals, vegetables, fruits, grain legumes and oil seeds are going on different stations. Different experiment and treatment are done in the seed for its better performance. Varietal and agronomic operation practices are done to observe the yield at different condition like, fertilizer, irrigation, insecticide application, off season production trial among same and different varieties. Different data are taken and recorded at different stages of plant growth, such like plant height, number of tillers, seed weight, chlorophyll content etc. Proper research plots replication and treatment are maintain to examine the crop yield. This research are multi-location, multi-seasonal to see where it can give better performance so we can recommend in that agro-climatic region. In some cross pollination crops, proper isolation distance and time should be maintain for securing the genetic purity of crop. Different characters are added and removed from the gene level of crop such like reducing plant height,bold seeds,resistance to some insect,pest and disease,moisture and drought tolerance etc are done by the seed scientist and plant breeders. Hybridization is also done in many plants where desire characters bearing pollens are pollinated artificially. All the research and experiment are done for the better yield production and minimize the risk of loss so food security should be maintained.
After seen required productivity and character of seed, new variety is released along with its yield, year of release and the area recommended by research station. These seeds are produce in greater amount and distributed to the farmers directly from the research station and remaining are stored in seed bank.
Due to lack of technician and experts, equipment and machinery, well facilitated lab, timely unavailability of required seeds, encouragement from government the seed production is not at the level of we needed. So these problems should be solve as soon as possible and high yielding seed, fertilizers, pesticide, storage houses should be provide to farmers for fulfilling demanding amount of food and also for the export.