Urea-molasses-mineral block (UMMB)
Urea-molasses-mineral block (UMMB) is a strategic feed supplement for ruminants which provides a constant source of fermentable nitrogen throughout the day to promote growth of rumen microbes.
Basic components of urea-molasses-mineral block (UMMB)
- Molasses 30-50%
- Urea 5-10%
- Rice/Wheat/Maize Bran 15-25%
- Salt 5-7%
- Lime or Cement 5-7%
- DCP 2-4%
- Minerals 1-2%
Steps for manufacturing UMMB
- Preparation of the components
Preparation of components
- The amount of different ingredients depends on the size of the block to be manufactured and the formula to be used.
- The ingredients to be mixed to make 1, 5, 15, or 25 kilo grams of block based on formula alternative
Size of blocks to be made
|1 kg||5 kg||15 kg||25 kg|
|1.||Molasses||40||400g||2 kg||6 kg||10 kg|
|2.||Urea||10||100g||0.5 kg||1.5 kg||2.5 kg|
|3.||Bran||25||250g||1.25 kg||3.75 kg||6.25 kg|
|4.||Cement||10||100g||0.5 kg||1.5 kg||2.5 kg|
|5.||Oil Cake||10||100g||0.5 kg||1.5 kg||2.5 kg|
|6.||Mineral||1||10g||0.05 kg||0.15 kg||0.25 kg|
|7.||Salt||4||40g||0.2 kg||0.6 kg||1 kg|
|Water||40g||0.2kg||0.6 kg||1 kg|
- Good mixing is a key for good block making.
- Urea must be mixed thoroughly.
- Weigh the amount of ingredients based on the formula of the block.
- Add urea to the molasses while continuously mixing.
- The urea is mixed with molasses and thoroughly stirred for about 20 minutes.
- The molasses can be heated in the sun to improve handling and mixing.
- Never add water to molasses.
- Make the cement into a paste with water prior to adding to the rest of the ingredients.
- Mixing the salt with cement accelerates hardening.
- High levels of the molasses and urea tend to decrease block hardness.
- Check block hardness after drying.
- If the block is too hard, reduce the proportion of cement or clay and slightly increase the proportion of molasses.
- If too soft, increase cement or clay and reduce molasses.
Casting and Molds
- After mixing the ingredient thoroughly mixture should place into molds.
- Any local container such as tin cans or small buckets can be used as a mold.
- Using a plastic sheet to line the molds will make block removal from the mold easier.
Drying and storage of UMMB
- Remove the blocks from the molds after 24 hours and place on racks to dry.
- Leave the blocks to dry for at least 5 days depending upon the weather condition.
Feeding and Intake of UMMB
- Blocks should be fed as a lick so that only the top surface should be in access to the animals.
- This prevents animals from pushing the blocks around, breaking them up and consuming large chunks that could urea toxicity.
- Blocks should be introduced to animals slowly and should be fed after animals have consumed adequate forage
- This prevents animals from consuming too much at any one time.
- Urea Molasses Blocks should never form the main diet
- They are only supplements.
- Feed to ruminants only (sheep, goats, cattle, camels).
- Do not feed mono-gastric, i.e. Horses, donkeys, or pigs.
- Do not feed to young ruminants less than six months of age (kids, lambs).
- Blocks should be used as supplement and not as the basic ration.
- Never give blocks to an animal with an empty stomach.
- There is the risk of poisoning due to excessive consumption.
- The amount of blocks fed to sheep and goats be limited to 100 grams/day.