Nutritional Composition of Sweet Potato

Nutritional Composition of Sweet Potato

Sweet potato nutritional composition is essential in meeting human nutritional needs including carbohydrates, fibers, carotenes, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, potassium, zinc, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C, and high-quality protein (Tables 2).   In general, sweet potato provides energy in carbohydrate form in the human diet. According to USDA (2009), in addition to carbohydrates, they are also rich in dietary fiber and have high water content, and have low total lipid content of 359 kJ energy, which is only about 0.05 g per 100 g. Even, minerals such as potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus, and iron are strong in sweet potatoes (USDA, 2009). Because of the different roles sweet potatoes play around the world, the idea of nutritional quality and its contribution needs to be transformed to perform particular roles in the human diet. Staple style diets, for example, might require high levels of vitamin C, iron, potassium, protein, and high fiber. Likewise, additional sweet potato varieties must have many of the same characters as staple varieties. However, as they are not going to be a big food item, the item level might be more versatile and fine.

Table 2. Nutritional value of raw sweet potato per 100 g.

Nutrient

Unit

Value per 100 g

Water

g

77.28

Energy

kJ

359.00

Protein

g

1.57

Total lipid (fat)

g

0.05

Ash

g

0.99

Carbohydrate

g

20.12

Fiber, total dietary

g

3.00

Calcium, Ca

g

30.00

Iron, Fe

mg

0.61

Magnesium, Mg

mg

25.00

Phosphorus, P

mg

47.00

Potassium, K

mg

337.00

Sodium, Na

mg

55.00

Vitamin C

mg

2.40

Pantothenic acid

mg

0.80

Vitamin B-6

mg

0.21

Vitamin A

IU

14187

Source: USDA (2009).

Nutrition facts

The nutrition facts for 3.5 ounces (100 grams) of raw sweet potatoes are

Nutrition fact per 100 grams of raw sweet potatoes:

 

 

Calories

86

Water

77%

Protein

1.6 gram

Carbohydrate

20.1 gram

Sugar

4.2 gram

Fiber

3 gram

Fats

0.1 gram

Carbohydrates:

A medium-sized sweet potato has 27 grams of carbs in it. The key components are starches, accounting for 53 percent of the carb material. Easy sugars, such as glucose, fructose, sucrose, and maltose, account for 32% of the carbon content. Sweet potatoes have a glycemic index ( GI) of low to high, ranging from 44–96. The GI is a test of how quickly after a meal, your blood sugar levels rise.

Since sweet potatoes have a relatively high GI, large quantities in a single meal may be unsuitable for people with type 2 diabetes. Notably, it seems that boiling is correlated with lower GI values than baking, frying, or roasting.

Starch

Based on how well they are digested, starches are mostly divided into three groups. In sweet potatoes, the starch proportions are as follows:

  • Starch easily digested (80 percent). This starch is broken down and consumed easily, increasing the value of the GI.
  • Digested starch slowly (9 percent). This form breaks down more slowly and allows blood sugar levels to rise smaller.
  • Starch resistant (11 percent). This one escapes digestion and feeds your nice gut bacteria, behaving like fiber. By cooling the sweet potato after cooking, the amount of resistant starch can increase slightly 
Fiber

Cooked sweet potatoes, with a medium-size sweet potato weighing 3.8 grams, are moderately high in fiber. The fibers are both soluble (15–23%) in pectin form, and insoluble (77–85%) in cellulose form, hemicellulose, and lignin form.

Soluble fibers, such as pectin, can increase their fullness, decrease food intake, and decrease blood sugar spikes by slowing sugar and starch digestion. Health benefits, such as a decreased risk of diabetes and better gut health, have been linked with a high intake of insoluble fibers.

Protein

2 grams of protein is kept by a medium-sized sweet potato, rendering it a bad source of protein. Sweet potatoes contain sporamines, special proteins that makeup over 80% of their total protein content.

The sporamins are produced once the plant is exposed to physical damage to promote healing. Recent research suggests they may possess antioxidant properties. Despite being relatively low in protein, sweet potatoes in many developing countries are an important source of the macronutrient.

So, sweet potatoes are made predominantly of carbohydrates. Most of the carbohydrates, followed by fiber, derive from starch. This root vegetable also has relatively low protein content but is still an essential source of protein in many developing countries

Vitamins and minerals

 

An excellent source of beta carotene, vitamin C, and potassium is sweet potatoes. In this vegetable the most plentiful of vitamins and minerals are:

Pro-vitamin A. Sweet potatoes are rich in beta carotene that can be converted into vitamin A by your body. This vegetable contains only 3.5 ounces (100 grams) of the recommended daily amount of this vitamin.

Vitamin C. This antioxidant can reduce the duration of the common cold and enhance the health of the skin.

Potassium. Potassium. This mineral, which is essential for blood pressure regulation, will decrease your risk of heart disease.

Mangana. For growth , development and metabolism this trace mineral is essential.

B6 vitamins. This vitamin plays a major role in the energy conversion of food.

The B5 vitamin. This vitamin is also known as pantothenic acid and is present in almost all foods to some degree.

Vitamin E. This strong fat-soluble antioxidant may help prevent oxidative damage to your body.

Sweet potatoes are, thus, an excellent source of beta-carotene, vitamin C, and potassium. They are a good source of many other minerals and vitamins as well.

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