Housing system in Cattle and Buffalo
Why proper housing is Important?
Proper housing system is important in scientific management of livestock which is vital for good health, comfort and protection from harsh weather condition and also helps the animals to utilize their genetic ability and feed for optimum production. The efficient management of cattle will be incomplete without a well-planned and adequate housing of cattle. Improper planning in the arrangement of animal housing may result in additional labor charges and these will not be economic.
Types of Housing System?
Generally, the housing system is of two types in cattle and buffalo rearing: 1) Loose Housing System 2) Barn Housing System
Loose Housing System
In this system, cattle and buffaloes are kept inside the fence surrounding the farm. Animals are left untied in this system. Proper shade with adequate food and water is provided. Generally this method of housing is not preferred over barn system as it requires more space and scientific management practices cannot be practiced. This system is preferred in natural cattle rearing and productivity can also be increased with increased cost of production. Spread of disease and pest is easier so its more risky then barn system.
Barn Housing System
Under the barn system, cattle and buffalo housing is divided into two categories:
1) Face to Face System or Head to Head:
This system is common in use. There are sufficient light and ventilation provision and brings savings in labor. It is a standard stanchion barn. In this type of system. The animals are so arranged in a row that their hands are facing each other. It is one of the examples of the double row system.
Advantages of face to face systems are:
- Cattles make a better showing for visitors when heads are together.
- The cattle feel easier to get into their stalls.
- Gutter is likely to get the sunlight as they need most.
- Feeding can be easier, both rows can be fed without backtracking.
Some criteria or features of spacing on this system of planning are:
- There is a common center feeding alley for both managers of length 1.4 m so that it is easy to feed without backtracking.
- Then after that, there is a manager space having the length space of 1.07 m
- After mange there is a standing platform there is a stanchion where animals are confined and secured extending up to 1.05-1.07 m.
- There is a place for gutters having length 0.6 m.
- In this way, the same schedule is maintained on the opposite manger standing platform then gutter according to the previous measurement.
2) Tail to the tail system (face out system):
It is one of the examples of a double row system. This is sufficient light and ventilation provision and brings saving in labor. Here, the cattle are so arranged that their tails are facing each other and faces are outside.
Advantages of the tail to tail systems
- Easier in Cleaning and milking of cows, because of the wide middle alley.
- Lessor danger of the spread of diseases from animal to animal.
- Cows get more fresh air from outside.
- Easy inspection during milking by the milkman.
- Following are the criteria of this planning system,
- Walking passage having widths of 1.5- 7.8 m is in between the two manure gutters of both sides is of great advantages.
- Next to the walkway passage, there is a manure gutter of 0.20 m width.
- After the manure gutter standing platform of length 1.5-1.7 m is maintained the stanchion portion extends up to 1.05 -1.20 m.
- After the manger, there is a feeding alley of 0.7 m length for feeding the cattle. This same process is repeated from the walkway passage to the manure gutter than the standing platform. Manger and at last feeling the alley of respective.