Feed Formulation for Poultry at Local level
Feed formulation is the process of quantifying the amount of feed ingredients that needs to be combined to form a single uniform mixture (diet) for poultry that supplies all of their nutrient required for growth and development. On an average Feed accounts for more than 70% of total poultry production.
Feed is made up of several ingredients which are grouped into ingredients providing energy (Fats, Oils and Carbohydrate), Protein (amino acid), Vitamins and Minerals. Cereal grain such as corn, wheat, barley is generally used to provide energy in poultry feed. Whereas, Soybean meal, Canola meal, Fish meal and Poultry byproducts meals are used in diet to provide protein supplement.
One of the best ways to improve quality is to produce poultry feed on the farm.
Low quality Feed lead to slow growth in chickens, low production of eggs, illnesses or even death.
Facts about Nepalese feed industry
- NRs 40 billion investment
- Industrial annual growth rate 8 to 10%
- Produces 900 thousand tons feed per annum
- Total manufacturing capacity 5000 tons per day
- Current daily production 3000 tons per day
- National demand of feed is fulfilled but the raw materials and supplements needs to be imported.
Basic information required for feed formulation: –
- Nutrient requirement of the species
- Feeding habit of the species
- Local availability, cost and nutrient composition of ingredients.
- Expected feed consumption
- Type of feed processing desired.
Mostly used ingredient in feed formulation with their protein content and Metabolic energy are given in tables below:
Cereals with protein % and metabolic energy
|Cereals||Protein content (%)||Metabolic energy (Kcal/Kg)|
Plant Protein meals
|Meals||Protein content (%)||Metabolic energy (Kcal/Kg)|
|Cotton seed meal||41||2350|
Animal protein meal
|Source||Protein content (%)||Metabolic energy (Kcal/Kg)|
|Meat and bone meal||50.4||11.2|
Standard requirements of nutrients for different stages and types of Poultry
|Nutrients||Chick||Grower||Layers||Broiler starter||Broiler finisher|
|Crude protein (%)||22||16||18||23||20|
|Crude fiber (% max)||7||8||10||6||6|
|Calcium (Min %)||1||0.8||2.75||1||1|
|Phosphorous (Min %)||0.7||0.6||0.75||0.7||0.7|
|Metabolizable energy (Kcal/Kg)||2800||2600||2700-2750||2800||2900|
|Lysine (Min %)||1||0.7||0.5||1||1|
|Methionine (Min %)||0.35||0.25||0.25||0.35||0.35|
Mineral mixture; Included at 2.3%. it is advisable to use salt free minerals mixture because fish meals available in our country(imported) is generally salted. Calcium supplement such as shell grit, calcite, Limestone etc. are used at 4-5% level.
Poultry should be fed with different ration at different stage of their growth as per the nutrient demand of the body and to make a profit out of them.
Generally, broiler should be feed with pre-starter(B0) until 14 days then starter(B1) Feed is used till 28 days which is followed by Finisher(B2) till marketable age i.e. usually 42 days.
Whereas layers should be fed with pre starter(B0) upto 14 days followed by L1 upto 8 weeks( at 40 gm per bird), L2 upto 18 weeks ( at 80 gm per bird) and finally L3 upto 80 weeks( at 105-110 gm per birds).
Similarly, for local poultry breed like Sakhini, Pwakh ulte, and Ghati khuile pre starter can be given at the rate of 12-35 gm per day per bird to supplement the growth upto a month along with its natural free-range food like grass and insects. Followed by formulated feed of about 40-45 gm per day along with 30% of grass from 5 to 20 weeks of age.
Advantages of locally formulated feeds
- Cost effective
- Healthy/Hygienic; no use of preservatives and other chemicals during formulation.
- Reduced chance of infection; in case of industrial manufacturing chance of infection increases during storage and transportation from factory to Farmers.
- No wastage of feed; as we can prepare according to requirement.
Disadvantages of Locally formulated feed
- It involves technical knowledge like percentage of protein and metabolic energy in different ingredients.
- Different ingredients(meals) may not be available at local level.
- Small scale of production may increase the cost of production.
- Poultry are very sensitive to feed for growth and development so a small mistake during formulation may cause a serious loss.
General feed ingredient ratio for different stage of poultry
|Maize||Rice Husk||Rice Polish||Soybean meal||Sesamum meal||Fish meal||Mineral mixture||Salt|
|Below 1 Week||50%||5%||15%||20%||–||8.5%||1%||0.5%|
|Above 20 Week||50%||20%||–||20%||–||8.5%||1%||0.5%|
Note: These ingredients may be replaced by other on the basis of their protein content and metabolic energy content.
An easy and simple method of feed formulation can be done using Pearson square method.