Crop Guide: Rice

Rice (Oriza sativa)

Cultivars: Hardinath-1, Chaite-2, Chaite-4, CH-45, Kanchan, Radha-11, Kanchhi Mansul, Chaite-6, PR-101, Khumal-11, Chaite-1, Sabitri, Hardinath-2, Khumal-4, Makwanpur-1, Chanda Nath-3, Radha-4

Climate: Temperature ranges from 20-37 oC. Optimum temperature 25oC growth and development 26oC for ripening.

Soil: loam to sandy loam to clay loam, but clay loam soils with good water retention capacity are considered as the best. pH range between 5.5-6.5.

Seed Rate: 20-25kg seed per hectare for fine, 30-35kg/ha seed for medium and 35- 40kg/ha seed for coarse paddy.

Seed treatment: Make solution of 75gm thiram or 50gm carbendazim in 8-10l water to treat 25kg seed. Dip the seed for few minutes and allow it to germinate before sowing in nursery. Tricoderma @125gm per 25kg seed can also be used to treat the seed.

Nursery raising

Dry bed: This method is practiced in areas where water is not sufficient to grow seedling in wet nurseries. Plough the field 3-4 times till the soil is thoroughly pulverized. Divide the nursery area into narrow beds of 1.25m widths and of any convenient length depending upon the slope (generally 8-10m). In Zn deficiency soils give 2 sprays of zinc sulphate (5 kg zinc sulphate + 2.5 kg calcium hydroxide mixed in 1000 liters of water for one ha). Seedlings would be ready for transplanting at an age of 20-25 days.

Wet bed: Saturate the field by giving irrigation and the soil is ploughed 3-4 times by local plough followed by puddling. After one to two days of puddling, divide the nursery area into narrow beds of 1-1.5m width and of any desirable length upon slope usually 8-10m. Uprooting is done at 21-25 DAS for early and 30-35 DAS for late varieties.

Dapog bed: Raised in the polythene sheet or in the cemented floor or aluminum or steel tray. The bed can be prepared the slightly raised (4-5 cm) surface in an open field or on even a cement floor. About 50kg of seeds can be broadcasted on 40 m2 of seed bed for 1 ha transplanting. The seedlings will be ready for transplanting within 12-14 day.

Modified Dapog: In this method separate beds are prepared with channels all around. The beds are 1-1.5 m wide and 10 m length and 10 cm height. Then sow the pre-sprouted and pre incubated seeds on sand or ash medium uniformly at one grain thickness. 

Field preparation: After summer ploughing, 2-3 ploughing are required to prepare the soil. If Daincha for green mannuring is taken as previous crop it should be incorporated with phosphorous. Irrigate the field at least one week prior of transplanting to allow to grow weeds. Then plough the field by filling water and do puddling before transplanting. 

Transplanting: For Early and medium maturing varieties 3rd week of June to mid of July while long duration and scented can be transplanted up to last week of July. Generally, 20-22 days old nursery is considered good for transplanting.

Spacing: 20x15cm or 20x10cm at the depth of 3-4 cm

Fertilizer application: Depends upon irrigated or rainfed condition. Full dose of Phosphorus and Potash before transplanting and half dose of Nitrogen and remaining Nitrogen in 2 splits first at tillering and second at heading.

High yielding and early maturing: At the rate of 120:60:60 NPK kg/ha

High yielding medium maturity: At the rate of 150:60:60 NPK kg/ha

Aromatic and dwarf variety: At the rate of 120:60:60 NPK kg/ha

Irrigation: At tillering, ear emergence, flowering, grain filling in case of rainfed condition. In well irrigated condition rice can withstand water logging during whole crop period as it is a semi aquatic plant.

Plant protection: Root weevil, leaf roller, husk insect, hispa, bunka insect, stem borer, green, brown, white hoppers, Gandhi bug, and army worm. Use recommended, effective and safe insecticides.

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